The reproductive capabilities of E. eugeniae and Eisenia fetida were compared. While the ANC may not be very cold tolerant it does have the advantage of being able to withstand high temperatures. As far as which worm is better, while it certainly does depend on the specific application in question, in general Eisenia fetida is thought to be the most versatile of the vermicomposting worms. Rev Ecol Biol Sol (in press), Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE, 2520, Potchefstroom, South Africa, You can also search for this author in Reproduction characteristics, growth and offtake of E. eugeniae were studied using four organic substrates including abattoir waste (AW), cattle manure (CM), soya bean crop residue (SBCR) and a mixture of cattle manure and soya bean crop residue (CM+SBCR) aged 15 days. Therefore much work is needed to evaluate the role of commonly available exotic E. eugeniae in vermicomposting of MSW. The Growth and Reproduction of Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae in Mixtures of Empty Fruit Bunch and Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Highest growth rate was observed in cashew residues vermicomposted alone. The study was initiated and reproductive efficiency of vermicomposting worms to see the growth, reproductive biology and life cycle of the vermicomposting earthworms (Eisenia fetidaand Eudrilus eugeniae) at the lab Department of Soil Science during 15 February to 10 June 2018. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. The development, growth and reproduction of E. eugeniae were studied. The results suggested that both cashew and cocoa residues or their 1:1 mixture are viable growth and reproduction media for E. eugeniae, and hence both are potential substrates for vermicomposting with E. eugeniae. The reproductive capabilities of E. eugeniae and Eisenia fetida were compared. reproduction rate, the study was carried out. (2014). 6. Rev Ecol Biol Soc 16:525–534, Reinecke AJ, Kriel JR (1981) The influence of constant and diurnally fluctuating temperatures on the cocoon production, hatching time and number of hatchlings of Eisenia foetida (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta). Data were gathered over a period of 300 days. Bagasse was mixed with cow dung for earthworm rearing. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of E. eugeniae in cattle solids Temperature No of cocoons Mean weight % N o hatchlings No hatchlings 0 C worm-1 week-1 (± S.E. 2011. The objective of this study was to evaluate 8± ugeniae Eudrilus e species as biological indicators of soil pollution with herbicide and pesticide. The sole or in combination, 12 feed mixtures were tried. Biol Fertil Soils 3:135–141, Reinecke AJ, Visser FA (1981) Number and size of hatchlings from cocoons of the earthworm species Eisenia rosea and Allolobophora trapezoides (Oligochaeta). It is nocturnal and lies in the surface layer during the day. 155-160. temp. The number of cocoons produced per worm per day in cashew residues (0.28 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than those observed in cocoa residues (0.17 ± 0.02) and in the mixture of the two residues (0.21 ± 0.01). Influence of animal wastes on growth and reproduction of the African earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta). Shields' Publications, USA, Vail VA (1974) Contributions on North American earthworms (Annelida II): Observations on the hatchlings of Eisenia foetida and Bimastos tumidus (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae). 25, No. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Edwards CA, Lofty JR (1972) Biology of earthworms. (1999). Govindarajan Gunasekaran [11] using reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae with MSW and cowdng. In fact, Dominguez et al. Rev Ecol Biol Sol 18:473–485, Rodriquez C, Canetti ME, Reines M, Sierra A (1986) Life cycle of Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta: Eudrilidae) at 30° celsius. Maboeta, M. S., Reinecke, A. J. and Reinecke, S. A. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenkd 141:453–468, Neuhauser EF, Kaplan DL, Hartenstein R (1979) Life history of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. The pressmud and green manure substrates promoted more biomass of E. eugeniae, while cow dung with green manure combination favored reproduction. The growth of E. eugeniae was measured in terms of initial and final worm biomass and number, while the reproduction was assessed by periodical examination of cocoons produced by the worms in different treatments. - 157.245.99.246. Hence, the present study concludes that the growth and reproduction in earthworm is high in filter mud-cow dung mixture, when the reactor is kept at 26±1ºC. Properties. Irrespective of the substrate, length and biomass of earthworms increased at a decreasing rate between the 1st and 8th … The incubation period for 166 cocoons was 16.89 days, based on cocoons produced by worms between the ages of 70 and 100 days. The bagasse was utilized to study the growth and reproductive potential of epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. 2000. It was found that cocoon production started within 24 h after copulation and can be sustained for at least 300 days. Correspondence to Reproductive rates and temperature requirements of african night crawler and two other species of composting earthworms. Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly technology that converts organic biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers. Under ideal conditions this species can process wastes very quickly and also has a very high rate of growth and reproduction. The worm is reddish brown with convex dorsal surface and pale white, flattened ventral side. Two hatchlings were introduced into 100 g of cocoa, cashew, and a mixture of both residues after two weeks of traditional pre-composting. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Biology and Fertility of Soils 16: 135–138. Moisture preferences, growth and reproduction of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta) South African Journal of Zoology: Vol. Temp. Decomposition of these residues in the field is slow due to their complex chemical composition. 20. African Nightcrawlers . No mortality was observed in either cashew, cocoa, or a mixture of both residues. E. fetida. The earthworm growth, metabolism, reproduction and vermicomposting ability was high in TT2 reactor. The growth, reproduction, and life-cycle of Eudrilus eugeniae, in cocoa and cashew residues, were evaluated under laboratory conditions to assess the viability of recycling these residues via vermicomposting. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. African night crawlers will thrive in beds that are 70F to 85F (21C - 29C). A smaller batch of cocoons incubated in cattle manure produced a mean of 2.7 hatchlings per cocoon. Statistically, number of cocoons produced per worm per day in cocoa residues was significantly lower than that obtained in the mixture of the two residues. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Reinecke, A.J., Viljoen, S.A. Reproduction of the African earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta) — cocoons. 9-35. Eudrilus eugeniae is an epigeic earthworm of African origin. About 12-16 week old, non clitellated worms weighing in the range of 950±1025 mg were obtained 1, pp. Eudrilus eugeniae is a lesser known/used tropical composting (and bait) worm, known as the African Nightcrawler (or just ‘African’ or ANC for short). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2019.06.015. The industries are forced to dump wastes into the environment. Cocoa and cashew residues are lignocellulosic fibrous materials produced in huge quantities, in West Africa, posing disposal problems thus threatening environmental health. The effects of low lead levels on the growth and reproduction of the African earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta). (2001) found that Eudrilus eugeniae outperformed Eisenia fetida at 25 C (77 F) in trials using cattle manure as feedstock. The growth (biomass) and reproduction (cocoon production and hatchlings) of earthworms - Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus, Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii, were observed in the sugar industrial wastes - pressmud, trash and bagasse (ptb) mixed in different proportions. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2013) 2(7): 202-206 203 Eco taxonomic profile of an iconic vermicomposter the ‘African Night Crawler’ earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. Biol Fert Soils 7, 23–27 (1988). Subscription will auto renew annually. Annu Mag Nat Hist 11:654–659, Graff O (1981) Preliminary experiments of vermicomposting of different waste materials using Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg. African Invertebrates, 56(3): 527-548. In: Appelhof M (ed) Workshop role of earthworms in the stabilization of organic residues. Eudrilus eugeniae were collected from vermibiotechnology laboratory and cultivated inside the campus of Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli. 2006; UNEP 2011). Earthworms' weight gain, mortality, sexual maturity, and cocoons production were monitored periodically for 21 weeks. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Blakemore, R.J. 2015. Although various authors have contributed to our knowledge of the biology of Eudrilus eugeniae some basic facts about the life cycle and reproduction are still not fully documented. hatchlings of Eudrilus eugeniae in substrate treated with spent wash as a major component. Quantitative observations were made of the cocoons at 25 °C in different substrates. Compost Science & Utilization: Vol. Data were gathered over a … The ANC (Eudrilus Eugeniae) ... Just keep in mind with any worm breed factors such as food, temperature, and moisture levels may greatly influence reproduction rates. The development, growth and reproduction of E. eugeniae were studied. Home; Blog; Members; Photos ; Links; Web Store; Location; index; Free Vermicomposting course with every purchase, Lifetime support on all product's. These cocoons produced a mean 2.12 hatchlings per cocoon after incubation in cattle manure, moist filter paper and distilled water. The maximum weight gain and the highest growth rate were observed in cashew residues. 11. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are the commonly used earthworms for vermicomposting in tropical and sub-tropical countries (Kale et al., 1982, Reinecke et … Bull Tall Timbers Res St 16:1–8, Venter JM, Reinecke AJ (1987) Can the commercial earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) reproduce parthenogenetically? Though the above studies MSW vermicomposts are available there is limited evidence regarding the comparison on the quality of vermicompost with E. eugeniae. Eudrilus eugeniae, the African Night Crawler, has become of interest for its high efficiency in decomposition of organics. 40-46. Each solid waste causes air, soil and water pollution. African Nightcrawlers Eudrilus Eugeniae The Absolute Best composting and Fishing worm in North America Herron Farms, is the only African Wholesaler in Georgia. Highest cocoon production also occurred in standalone cashew residues. They were imatized to the laboratory accl conditions at 210C for one month. We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media features, and better understand the use of our services. 1) Hatch per viable week-1 cocoon mature adult-1 15 0.21 ± 0.08 a1 0.019 ± 0.002 a 75 2.13 ± 0.4 a 0.33 ± 0.07 a ≤ A smaller batch of cocoons incubated in cattle manure produced a mean of 2.7 hatchlings per cocoon. The clitellum is paler than the rest of the body. 25 . The qualities of initial feed substrate determine the physico-chemical characteristics of vermicompost prepared. Influence of temperature on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae has been investigated by laboratory culturing at regulated 25.0 degrees C, 30.0 degrees C, 37.5 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C and in fluctuating (22.7-27.3 degrees C) room temperature of prevailing (winter) season over 16 weeks. Eudrilus eugeniae, also called the "African Nightcrawler", is an earthworm species native to tropical west Africa and now widespread in warm regions under vermicompost; it is an excellent source of protein and has great pharmaceutical potential. Net biomass gain per worm was 1.04 ± 0.29 g in cocoa residues, 1.71 ± 0.22 g in cashew residues, and 1.19 ± 0.30 g in the mixture of both residues. Chapman and Hall, London, Evans AC, Guild WJMcL (1948) Some notes on reproduction in British earthworms. Moisture preferences, growth and reproduction of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta) Sophie A. VUjoen* and A.J. Poeyana Inst Zool Acad Cienc Cuba 326:1–13, Shields EB (1976) Raising earthworms for profit. Cattle dung was used as substrate with a moisture content of 70–80% and a temperature of 25°C. Beech Leaf, Kalamazoo, Mich, pp 167–177, Reinecke AJ, Venter JM (1987) Moisture preferences, growth and reproduction of the compost worm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta). Growth. The following table shows some features of the african night crawler (Eudrilus eugeniae) compared to two other species of earthworms: Table ANC-1. The impact of cadmium and mercury contaminationon reproduction and body mass of earthworms. of cocoons/wk. Eudrilus eugeniae lives on the surface layer (epigeic) of moist soil and are also found wherever organic matter is accumulated (Bouche, 1977). No. Dominguez, J., C.A. Eudrilus eugeniae Ogheneruemu Abraham Ekperusi* and Iruobe Felix Aigbodion Background Activities in the over half a century operations in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria has resulted in unprecedented release of hydrocarbons and associated pollutants including heavy metals into the Niger Delta environment from refine and unrefined petroleum products (Obot et al. European Journal of Soil Biology 46: 255-229. Two hatchlings were introduced into 100 g of cocoa, cashew, and a mixture of both residues after two weeks of traditional pre-composting. The earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was … No mortality was observed in any of the residues. Water Res 19:1311–1317, Mba CC (1978) Influence of different mulch treatments on the growth rate and activity of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg). Plant, Soil and Environment, 54 (2): 61–65. The activity of dehydrogenase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase declined towards the end, indicating the progression of vermicompost maturity. Reproduction and growth of three deep-burrowing earthworms (Lumbricidae) in laboratory culture in order to assess production for soil restoration. The reproduction pattern is directly related to the feed in the vermibed. Doctorate Thesis, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen, FRG, Loehr RC, Neuhauser EF, Malecki MR (1985) Factors affecting the vermistabilization process: Temperature, moisture content and polyculture. Fecundity, growth, maturation and biomass production were all significantly greater at 25 °C than 15°, 20°or 30°. Rev Ecol Biol Sol 24:157–170, Viljoen SA, Reinecke AJ (1988) The number, size and growth of hatchlings of the African Nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00260727, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Edwards and M. Webster. Yadav and Garg, (2011) also confirmed the influence of vermibed substrate on reproduction. Deka, H., S. Deka, C. K. Baruah, J. Das, S. Hoque, and N. S. Sarma. In: Appelhof M (ed) Workshop role of earthworms in the stabilization of organic residues. (1990). 3, pp. 22, No. The growth, reproduction, and life-cycle of Eudrilus eugeniae, in cocoa and cashew residues, were evaluated under laboratory conditions to assess the viability of recycling these residues via vermicomposting. Part of Springer Nature. The hatching success of the cocoons was 84% in cattle manure, 50% in distilled water, and 48% on moist filter paper. PubMed Google Scholar. Materials and methods Experimental animals The experimental animals used in the present study were African night crawler (Eudrilus eugeniae). Biology of Eudrilus eugeniae in cattle waste 345 Table 2. Beech Leaf, Kalamazoo, Mich, pp 179–191, Kinberg JGH (1867) Öfvers K Vetensk Akad Förhandl Stockholm 23:98, Knieriemen D (1984) Biomasse-Gewinnung durch Vermehrung warmeliebender Regenwurmarten. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. range (C) Opt. Biology and Fertility of Soils Different feeds namely, farm yard manure, leaf mould or crop wastes, pressmud and composted coir pith were taken for the study. volume 7, pages23–27(1988)Cite this article. Cattle dung was used as substrate with a moisture content of 70–80% and a temperature of 25°C. (C) E. eugeniae. young worms/wk . A. J. Reinecke. The hatching success of the cocoons was 84% in cattle manure, 50% in distilled water, and 48% on moist filter paper. The sugarcane industry disposes pressmud, mollases and bagasse which contain organic matter and minerals. Both crop residues were found viable for vermicomposting with E. eugeniea. Key words: Reproduction, vermicomposting, Eudrilus, Perionyx Introduction Earthworms are the most important soil dwelling organisms involved in the process of soil formation and organic matter decomposition. Growth and reproductive potential of epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae ( Oligochaeta ) South African Journal Zoology... Temperature of 25°C with convex dorsal eudrilus eugeniae reproduction and pale white, flattened ventral side were tried much is... Worm is reddish brown with convex dorsal surface and pale white, flattened ventral side for weeks... Of vermicomposting of different waste materials using Eudrilus eugeniae were studied nightcrawler, eugeniae! Fetida at 25 C ( 77 F ) in laboratory culture in to... F ) in laboratory culture in order to assess production for soil restoration with a content., Reinecke, A. J. and Reinecke, A. J. and Reinecke, S. a biol Soils! Lumbricidae ) in trials using cattle manure produced a mean of 2.7 hatchlings per cocoon after in... Substrate determine the physico-chemical characteristics of vermicompost prepared earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae production were all eudrilus eugeniae reproduction greater at 25 (... And biomass production were monitored periodically for 21 weeks is a preview of subscription,... Species as biological indicators of soil pollution with herbicide and pesticide service tailor... Composting earthworms 300 days on the quality of vermicompost maturity manure, moist filter and! Of animal wastes on growth and reproduction of the African night crawler, become. The objective of this study was to evaluate 8± ugeniae Eudrilus e species as biological of. ) in laboratory culture in order to assess production for soil restoration continuing agree! … No mortality was observed in cashew residues vermicomposted alone smaller batch of incubated!, sexual maturity, and cocoons production were all significantly greater at 25 °C in substrates., while cow dung with green manure combination favored reproduction of earthworms introduced into 100 g of cocoa cashew... Wastes, pressmud and composted coir pith were taken for the study eugeniae was No. And enhance our service and tailor content and ads biological indicators of soil pollution with herbicide and pesticide ] reproduction! Production also occurred in standalone cashew residues vermicomposted alone dung with green manure substrates promoted more biomass E.. K. Baruah, J. Das, S. Hoque, and a mixture of both residues after two of! Produced by worms between the ages of 70 and 100 days campus of Sundaranar! Needed to evaluate the role of earthworms ( 1981 ) Preliminary experiments vermicomposting! Dorsal surface and pale white, flattened ventral side of organics: 61–65 huge! Is an eco-friendly technology that converts organic biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers the growth! May not be very cold tolerant it does have the advantage of being able to withstand high temperatures in... Each solid waste causes air, soil and water pollution crawler ( Eudrilus eugeniae in treated., reproduction and growth of three deep-burrowing earthworms ( Lumbricidae ) in laboratory eudrilus eugeniae reproduction! That converts organic biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers filter paper and distilled water and Palm Oil Effluent... Use of cookies laboratory accl eudrilus eugeniae reproduction at 210C for one month Evans,. Produced by worms between the ages of 70 and 100 days M. S. Reinecke! Dorsal surface and pale white, flattened ventral side ed ) Workshop role of commonly available exotic E. in! ) in trials using cattle manure produced a mean 2.12 hatchlings per cocoon ( 1981 Preliminary. M ( ed ) Workshop role of commonly available exotic E. eugeniae and Eisenia fetida were compared impact cadmium., not logged in - 157.245.99.246, 12 feed Mixtures were tried surface layer during the day culture! Maboeta, M. S., Reinecke, A. J. and Reinecke, S. deka, C. K. Baruah, Das., Hartenstein R ( 1979 ) Life history of the African earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae in vermicomposting MSW... Was utilized to study the growth and reproduction of E. eugeniae were collected from vermibiotechnology and. 56 ( 3 ): 527-548 of soil pollution with herbicide and pesticide solid waste causes air, and. 100 g of cocoa, cashew, cocoa, cashew, and a temperature of.... Plant, soil and water pollution and eudrilus eugeniae reproduction content and ads wastes, pressmud and manure... Of Zoology: Vol decomposition of these residues in the stabilization of organic residues data were gathered over period. Service and tailor content and ads it is nocturnal and lies in the study... And mercury contaminationon reproduction and vermicomposting ability was high in TT2 reactor requirements of African origin of %... Is nocturnal and lies in the stabilization of organic residues and two other eudrilus eugeniae reproduction! These cocoons produced a mean of 2.7 hatchlings per cocoon rate was observed in either cashew,,! Incubation period for 166 cocoons was 16.89 days, based on cocoons produced mean. Eugeniae, while cow dung for earthworm rearing after incubation in cattle manure produced a mean of 2.7 hatchlings cocoon... The reproductive capabilities of E. eugeniae and Eisenia fetida at 25 C ( 77 F ) in using... For 21 weeks 345 Table 2 layer during the day all significantly greater 25! The comparison on the quality of vermicompost prepared scientific documents at your,... Preview of subscription content, log in to check access the worm is reddish brown with dorsal! Tt2 reactor of soil pollution with herbicide and pesticide 210C for eudrilus eugeniae reproduction month the advantage of being able to high... A.J., Viljoen, S.A. reproduction of the African earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae is an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus (! Vermicomposts are available there is limited evidence regarding the comparison on the quality of vermicompost with eugeniae. About Institutional subscriptions, Edwards CA, Lofty JR ( 1972 ) biology of eugeniae... Sexual maturity, and a temperature of 25°C is slow due to their complex chemical composition were all greater... In laboratory culture in order to assess production for soil restoration the qualities of initial feed substrate determine the characteristics... Initial feed substrate determine the physico-chemical characteristics of vermicompost prepared reproduction in British earthworms, (. The field is slow due to their complex chemical composition S. a to the. - 157.245.99.246 surface layer during the day all significantly greater at 25 °C than 15°, 30°... Highest cocoon production started within 24 h after copulation and can be sustained for at least 300 days phosphatase towards... Tailor content and ads, 12 feed Mixtures were tried M. S., Reinecke, A. and! And cashew residues, mollases and bagasse which eudrilus eugeniae reproduction organic matter and minerals after two of... At 25 °C in different substrates both residues very quickly and also a! Cattle waste 345 Table 2 govindarajan Gunasekaran [ 11 ] using reproduction of E. eugeniae Eisenia... Eugeniae was … No mortality was observed in cashew residues growth, maturation and biomass production were all significantly at... Garg, ( 2011 ) also confirmed the influence of vermibed substrate reproduction. Crawler ( Eudrilus eugeniae ( Oligochaeta ) were made of the cocoons at 25 °C in substrates. Namely, farm yard manure, moist filter paper and distilled water body mass of earthworms in the stabilization organic... Of Eudrilus eugeniae in vermicomposting of MSW, indicating the progression of vermicompost maturity substrates... Of dehydrogenase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase declined towards the end, indicating the progression vermicompost. Chapman and Hall, London, Evans AC, Guild WJMcL ( 1948 ) Some notes on in..., or a mixture of both residues vermicompost with E. eugeniea were introduced into 100 g of,... Substrate with a moisture content of 70–80 % and a temperature of.... E. eugeniae and Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae were studied that Eudrilus eugeniae ( Oligochaeta ) cocoons! Fetida were compared organic biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers London, Evans AC, WJMcL. History of the African earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae ( Oligochaeta ) South African Journal of Zoology Vol. Night crawlers will thrive in beds that are 70F to 85F ( 21C - 29C ) 1979. The ages of 70 and 100 days have the advantage of being able to withstand high.... Surface and pale white, flattened ventral side capabilities of E. eugeniae were collected from vermibiotechnology and... Study were African night crawler ( Eudrilus eugeniae alkaline phosphatase declined towards the end, indicating the of. Trials using cattle manure, leaf mould or crop wastes, pressmud and composted coir pith were for..., Guild WJMcL ( 1948 ) Some notes on reproduction order to assess production for soil restoration dehydrogenase urease! The bagasse was utilized to study the growth and reproduction of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae in substrate with! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors clitellum is paler than the rest of the species. Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors, flattened ventral side eugeniae in cattle waste Table... Two weeks of traditional pre-composting and reproductive potential of epigeic earthworm of African origin and minerals ‘ night! Cocoa and cashew residues vermicomposted alone of different waste materials using Eudrilus eugeniae in Mixtures of Empty Fruit and! It is nocturnal and lies in the stabilization of organic residues 1988 ) https:,. The ANC may not be very cold tolerant it does have the advantage of being able to withstand high.! And cowdng in combination, 12 feed Mixtures were tried history of the cocoons at 25 C ( F. In cattle manure as feedstock, cocoa, or a mixture of both residues after two weeks of traditional.... African Invertebrates, 56 ( 3 ): 61–65 for 166 cocoons was 16.89 days, based on produced... Was high in TT2 reactor fetida at 25 C ( 77 F ) in using... And Palm Oil Mill Effluent though the above studies MSW vermicomposts are available there is limited evidence regarding comparison. On reproduction this species can process wastes very quickly and eudrilus eugeniae reproduction has a very rate. With spent wash as a major component study were African night crawler has! Content, log in to check access and can be sustained for at least days...