Concepts and Applications of Information Technology IFSM 201 | 3 Credits (Access to a standard office productivity package, i.e., word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation software, required.) [44]:9 Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:[45]:20–21, "Infotech" redirects here. Basic Concepts of Information Technology, which is the basis for the theoretical test. Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (It) 1. Information system, an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for providing information, knowledge, and digital products. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS). [11], The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 23:00. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932[17] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. [33] It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels. We see its effect around us every day, even though we may not know what it is. [42][page needed] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded and replaced. Meaning of Technology. There are several answers. The Basics – What is Information? No-Charge Teleworking Consultations. IT is typically used within the context of business operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies. That place notation is equivalent to computationally trading space and time (economical representation of decimal versus long binary strings). Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[5][a]. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. This video was created to assist learners in developing a basic understanding of the concept of information technology. Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data[1] or information. • Information is data processed for some purpose • Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. Information technology definition is - the technology involving the development, maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and networks for the processing and distribution of data. Information technology is a study of the design, implementation, development, management, and support of computer-based information systems that assist with … The early concept of technology as info rmation holds that the technology is ge nerally applicable and easy to reproduce and reuse (Arrow, 1962). [2] IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). Therefore, if a … [28] As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.[29]. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be of great use, but without the reinforcement of definition ... the term IT lacks substance when applied to the name of any function, discipline, or position. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. Information technology deals with information system, data storage, access, retrieval, analysis and intelligent decision making. … Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. Introduction: The emergence of ICT is one of the wonderful gifts of modern science and technology which has brought tremendous changes in library and information science. [4], The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Hardware also includes the peripheral devices that work with computers, such as keyboards, external disk drives, and routers. Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information. Basic Technology JSS 1, Week: 1. It is a word of Greek origin, τεχνολογία, Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. In this module you can learn about different parts of a computer, as well as some of the key concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as those relating to networks and security: – Understand what hardware is, know about factors that affect computer performance and know about the peripheral devices. 1. These might include databases or other information repositories. [10] The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. "[38], Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry".[39][40][41]. This is the physical technology that works with information. The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 2005. information and communications technology, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, Information Technology Association of America, Center for Minorities and People with Disabilities in Information Technology, Information and communications technology, Journal of Cases on Information Technology, List of the largest information technology companies, World Information Technology and Services Alliance, "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)", "Advanced information on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2000", "Early computers at Manchester University", "How Much Information Is There in the World? [15] The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube,[16] but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. Inthe literature of IS there is a distinction betweendocument retrieval and fact retrieval. The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language (SQL), based on relational algebra. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940), and electronic (1940–present). Previous work in informed consent concepts in an information technology context includes work by Friedman et al. (2000) on a practical foundation for informed consent in Internet transactions. Topic: Concept of Technology. [30]:1–9 Most of the world's digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats[31][b] even within a single organization. Technology affects our daily life. These important inventions led to the development of the personal computer (PC) in the 1970s, and the emergence of information and communications technology (ICT). Definitions and concepts of technology Definition of technology Technology is the set of technical knowledge, scientifically, ordered that allow you to design and create goods and services that facilitate the adaptation to the environment and meet both their essential needs as people's wishes. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. THE CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. [8] Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, soft… An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system, or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, software, and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace. [9], Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. A 1958 article in Harvard Business Review referred to information technology as consisting of three basic parts: computational data processing, decision support, and business software. First, many of these terms come up in later sessions, and therefore need to be understood. Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (IT) Dheeraj Mehrotra www.computerscienceexpertise.com [3] However, the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data. Basics of the information technology Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. [24], In recent years, the extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation. Why is it important to understand these technical terms? * 1. it must… In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems". The Basics – What is Information? It includes all the various activities connected with the location, acquisition, processing, storage and communication of information. [12], Several later breakthroughs in semiconductor technology include the integrated circuit (IC) invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959, the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Laboratories in 1959, and the microprocessor invented by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel in 1971. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (IT) 2. (1986). Technology is a term that may be new to us but it is describing something which is not new at all. ", "Format" refers to the physical characteristics of the stored data such as its. Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim. [22], Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited". CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. [35] To address that issue, the field of data mining – "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data"[36] – emerged in the late 1980s. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. [18], IBM introduced the first hard disk drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. [32]:4–6, Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY This handout mainly deals with descriptions of data and information technology (IT) concepts and terminologies. By comparison, the first transistorized computer developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version. ", "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", "Americas events- Video animation on The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010", Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report (pdf), "Our programmes, campaigns and partnerships", "U.S. Careers in the growing field of information technology services : Beyond the Numbers: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics", Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 1: Mobile Phones and Information Technology, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_technology&oldid=994284119, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders, Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage. This time period marked the beginning of IT as an officially defined … * Information is data processed for some purpose * Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. Inspite of our claim that IR is actually documentretrieval, there has throughout the history of the field aproblematic tendency to regard information as pieces of facts oropinion freed from the documents. The module consists of eight categories and the test will contain questions from all of the categories. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Read chapter Concepts of Information Security: ... As the congressional Office of Technology Assessment has noted, the effects of computer-based monitoring depend on the way it is used (OTA, 1987a). [COVID-19 Alert] Network Depot is giving back. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network. [27] All databases are common in one point that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema. Fundamental Information Technology Ideas Concept descriptions Binary: that switches have the ability to represent any numeral. [26], All DMS consist of components, they allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. [14] Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. [7] The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism. Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to all the technology used to handle telecommunications, broadcast media, intelligent building management systems, audiovisual processing and transmission systems, and network-based control and monitoring functions. [23], Database Management Systems (DMS) emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. In 1981, the first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was released by Oracle. (1999). [34], Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort". [19]:6 Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs. Concepts Of Information Technology Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (It) - Presentation Transcript 1. Management information systems are computer-based methods of arranging information in a cohesive, coherent fashion. [20]:4–5 Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. The basic concept of Information Technology can be traced to the World War II alliance of the military and industry in the development of electronics, computers, and information theory. 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